IMMUNOLOGICAL, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ORAL FLUID IN CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL CLEFT PALATE AND POSTOPERATIVE PALATE DEFECT
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Objectives. Analysis of oral fluid in children with congenital cleft palate and palate defect after uranoplasty. Purpose. To analyze oral fluid in children with congenital cleft palate and palate defect after uranoplasty to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines and secretory immunoglobulin sIgA and evaluate physico-chemical (salivation rate, kinematic viscosity, pH) and biochemical parameters (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, protein) of mixed saliva. Methodology. The article presents the results of studying the parameters of the oral fluid of 109 children aged 6–12 years with congenital cleft palate and palate defect after uranoplasty and 50 practically healthy children of the same age. Results. Hyperstimulation of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in the oral fluid and a decrease in the average level of secretory immunoglobulin sIgA. In children with congenital cleft palate and defects remaining after uranoplasty, there was a deviation in the physicochemical and biochemical parameters of the oral fluid, which are manifested by a decrease in the rate of salivation, an increase in its viscosity and a shift in pH to the acid side. In contrast to the group of children without dental pathology, children with cleft palate and defects after uranoplasty showed a decrease in the content of total protein, phosphorus and calcium in the mixed saliva and an increase in the content of magnesium. Conclusions. The obtained laboratory data indicate the presence of a local inflammatory process in the oral cavity and a decrease in local immunological anti-inflammatory factors. This should be taken into account for the development of methods for preoperative sanitation of the oral mucosa in children with congenital cleft palate and a palate defect after uranoplasty at the stage of preparation for reoperation.

Keywords:
congenital cleft palate, uranoplasty, postoperative palate defect, oral fluid immunological parameters, cytokines, s-IgA, oral fluid biochemistry
References

1. Mitropanova M.N. Osobennosti funkcionirovaniya immunnoy sistemy u detey s vrozhdennymi rasschelinami guby i neba na etapah hirurgicheskogo lecheniya. Stomatologiya detskogo vozrasta i profilaktika. 2017;16(61):79-83. [M.N. Mitropanova. Features of the functioning of the immune system in children with congenital cleft lip and palate at the stages of surgical treatment. Dentistry of childhood and prevention. 2017;16(61):79-83. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29206060

2. Nesterova I.V., Mitropanova M.N., Chudilova G.A., Lomtatidze L.V., Gayvoronskaya T.V. Vliyanie disbalansa regulyatornyh citokinov i osteokal'cina na osteogenez u detey s vrozhdennoy rasschelinoy guby i neba v postnatal'nom ontogeneze. Stomatologiya. 2020;99(1):77-81. [I.V. Nesterova, M.N. Mitropanova, G.A. Chudilova, L.V. Lomtatidze, T.V. Gaivoronskaya. Effect of imbalance of regulatory cytokines and osteocalcin on osteogenesis in children with congenital cleft lip and palate in postnatal ontogenesis. Dentistry. 2020;99(1):77-81. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42479509

3. Rogova L.N., Fomenko I.V., Timoshenko A.N. Immunologicheskaya i mikrobiologicheskaya harakteristika slizistoy obolochki polosti rta u detey s vrozhdennoy rasschelinoy verhney guby i neba (obzor literatury). Volgogradskiy nauchno-medicinskiy zhurnal. 2016;3(51):19-22. [L.N. Rogova, I.V. Fomenko, A.N. Timoshenko. Immunological and microbiological characteristics of the oral mucosa in children with congenital cleft lip and palate (literature review). Volgograd Scientific Medical Journal. 2016;3(51):19-22. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=27249177

4. Hripach L.V., Knyazeva T.D., Zheleznyak E.V., Makoveckaya A.K., Koganova Z.I., Budarina O.V., Lebedeva N.V., Ingel' F.I., Demina N.N. Adaptivnye izmeneniya biohimicheskih i immunologicheskih pokazateley smeshannoy slyuny pri vozdeystvii zagryazneniy atmosfernogo vozduha na detey doshkol'nogo vozrasta. Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal prikladnyh i fundamental'nyh issledovaniy. 2019;6:68-73. [L.V. Khripach, T.D. Knyazeva, E.V. Zheleznyak, A.K. Makovetskaya, Z.I. Koganova, O.V. Budarina, N.V. Lebedeva, F.I. Ingel, N.N. Demina. Adaptive changes in biochemical and immunological parameters of mixed saliva under the influence of atmospheric air pollution on preschool children. International Journal of Applied and Basic Research. 2019;6:68-73. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=38489006

5. Kovalevskiy A.M, Kovalevskiy V.A. Etiologiya i patogenez vospalitel'nyh zabolevaniy parodonta (obzor literatury). Chast' 1. Institut stomatologii. 2017;4:88-90. [A.M. Kovalevsky, V.A. Kovalevsky. Etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases (literature review). Part 1. Institute of Dentistry. 2017;4:88-90. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32302028

6. Dovbnya Zh.A., Golovskaya G.G., Galkina O.P., Ter-pogosyan D.A., Ablaev K.D., Ablaev K.D. Izmenenie faktorov nespecificheskoy zaschity rotovoy polosti u detey s gingivitom na fone primeneniya efirnyh masel i bentonitovoy gliny. Vestnik sovremennoy klinicheskoy mediciny. 2021;14(6):33-37. [Zh.A. Dovbnya, G.G. Golovskaya, O.P. Galkina, D.A. Ter-pogosyan, K.D. Ablaev, K.D. Ablaev. Changes in the factors of nonspecific protection of the oral cavity in children with gingivitis against the background of the use of essential oils and bentonite clay. Bulletin of modern clinical medicine. 2021;14(6):33-37. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=47463336

7. Osokina A.S., Maslak E.E., Yakovlev A.T. Uroven' immunoglobulina A v slyune v zavisimosti ot nalichiya i tyazhesti rannego detskogo kariesa. Stomatologiya detskogo vozrasta i profilaktika. 2020;20;4(76):304-309. [A.S. Osokina, E.E. Maslak, A.T. Yakovlev. The level of immunoglobulin A in saliva depending on the presence and severity of early childhood caries. Dentistry of childhood and prevention. 2020;20;4(76):304-309. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=44583346

8. Danilova M.A., Aleksandrova L.I. Kachestvo zhizni detey s vrozhdennoy rasschelinoy guby i neba. Stomatologiya detskogo vozrasta i profilaktika. 2018;17(3):54-57. [M.A. Danilova, L.I. Aleksandrova. Quality of life in children with congenital cleft lip and palate. Dentistry of childhood and prevention. 2018;17(3):54-57. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36347137

9. Shevchenko O.L., Antonova A.A. Sostav smeshannoy slyuny i pokazateli kariesa vremennyh zubov i ego oslozhneniy u detey. Endodontiya Today. 2015;4:8-11. [O.L. Shevchenko, A.A. Antonova. The composition of mixed saliva and indicators of caries in deciduous teeth and its complications in children. Endodontics Today. 2015;4:8-11. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25411139

10. Kuriakose S., Sundaresan C., Mathai V. et al. A comparative study of salivary buffering capacity, flow rate, resting pH, and salivary immunoglobulin A in children with rampant caries and caries-resistant children // J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. – 2013;31(2):69-73. doi: 10.4103/0970-4388.115697.

11. Skripkina G.I. Kliniko-laboratornye parametry subklinicheskogo techeniya karioznogo processa v detskom vozraste. Stomatologiya detskogo vozrasta i profilaktika. 2017;16(4):24-27. [G.I. Skripkina. Clinical and laboratory parameters of the subclinical course of the carious process in childhood. Dentistry of childhood and prevention. 2017;16(4):24-27. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32389346

12. Musahodzhaeva D.A., Inoyatov A.Sh., Yakubov Sh.N. Nekotorye pokazateli immunnoy sistemy detey s vrozhdennoy rasschelinoy guby i neba. Problemy biologii i mediciny. 2011;4(67):33. [D.A. Musakhodzhaeva, A.Sh. Inoyatov, Sh.N. Yakubov. Some indicators of the immune system of children with congenital cleft lip and palate. Problems of biology and medicine. 2011;4(67):33. (In Russ.)].

13. Agaeva N.A. Rol' sekretornogo IgA v patologii chelyustno-licevoy oblasti. Fundamental'nye issledovaniya. 2010;4:11-16. [N.A. Agayeva. The role of secretory IgA in the pathology of the maxillofacial region. Basic research. 2010;4:11-16. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=15107695

14. Kaur A., Kwatra, K.S., Kamboj P. Evaluation of nonmicrobial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries // J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. – 2012;30(3):212-217. doi: 10.4103/0970-4388.105013.

15. Kubala E., Strzelecka P., Grzegocka M. et al. A review of selected studies that determine the physical and chemical properties of saliva in the field of dental treatment // BioMed Research International. – 2018;ID6572381:13. doi: 10.1155/2018/6572381.

16. Hemadi, A.S., Huang R., Zhou Y., Zou J. Salivary proteins and microbiota as biomarkers for early childhood caries risk assessment // Int J Oral Sci. – 2017;9(11):e1. doi: 10.1038/ijos.2017.35.

17. Al Amoudi N., Al Shukairy H., Hanno A. A comparative study of the secretory IgA immunoglobulins (s.IgA) in mothers and children with SECC versus a caries free group children and their mothers // J Clin Pediatr Dent. – 2007;32(1):53-56. doi: 10.17796/jcpd.32.1.l338366jw54634q5.

18. Lo Giudice G., Nicita F., Militi A. et al. Correlation of s-IgA and IL-6 salivary with caries disease and oral hygiene parameters in children // Dent J (Basel). – 2019;8(1):3. doi: 10.3390/dj8010003.

19. Parisotto, T.M., King, W.F., Duque C. et al. Immunological and microbiologic changes during caries development in young children // Caries Res. – 2011;45(4):377-385. doi: 10.1159/000330230.

20. Dovbnya Zh.A., Kolesnik K.A., Golovskaya G.G. Zaschitnye reakcii polosti rta u detey pri hronicheskom kataral'nom gingivite i ego lechenii. Stomatologiya detskogo vozrasta i profilaktika. 2017;16(2):24-26. [Zh.A. Dovbnya, K.A. Kolesnik, G.G. Golovskaya. Protective reactions of the oral cavity in children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis and its treatment. Dentistry of childhood and prevention. 2017;16(2):24-26. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29206046

21. Puhova O.S., Chernenko S.V. Osobennosti stomatologicheskogo statusa detey s vrozhdennymi rasschelinami verhney guby i neba v postoyannom prikuse. Stomatologiya detskogo vozrasta i profilaktika. 2004;3(3-4):34-36. [O.S. Pukhova, S.V. Chernenko. Features of the dental status of children with congenital cleft lip and palate in permanent occlusion. Dentistry of childhood and prevention. 2004;3(3-4):34-36. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=9284441

22. Yackevich E.E., Osokina G.G. Hronicheskiy gingivit u detey s nasledstvennoy i vrozhdennoy somaticheskoy patologiey. Stomatologiya dlya vseh. 2007;1:4-7. [E.E. Yatskevich, G.G. Osokina. Chronic gingivitis in children with hereditary and congenital somatic pathology. Dentistry for everyone. 2007;1:4-7. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=12516681

23. Chuykin S.V., Akat'eva G.G., Chuykin O.S., Grin' E.A., Kuchuk K.N. Stomatologicheskaya zabolevaemost' u detey s vrozhdennoy rasschelinoy verhney guby i neba v regione s ekotoksikantami. Stomatologiya detskogo vozrasta i profilaktika. 2019;19(4):15-19. [S.V. Chuikin, G.G. Akat'eva, O.S. Chuikin, E.A. Grin', K.N. Kuchuk. Dental morbidity in children with congenital cleft lip and palate in a region with ecotoxicants. Dentistry of childhood and prevention. 2019;19(4):15-19. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42490586

24. Chuykin O.S., Davletshin N.A., Chuykin S.V., Akat'eva G.G., Kuchuk K.N., Ganieva R.A., Muratov A.M. Sostoyanie tkaney parodonta u detey s vrozhdennoy rasschelinoy neba i defektom posle uranoplastiki. Problemy stomatologii. 2021;17(4):105-112. [O.S. Chuikin, N.A. Davletshin, S.V. Chuikin, G.G. Akat’eva, K.N. Kuchuk, R.A. Ganieva, A.M. Muratov. State of periodontal tissues in children with congenital cleft palate and defect after uranoplasty. Actual problems in dentistry. 2021;17(4):105-112. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=47871063

25. Chopra A., Lakhanpal M., Rao N.C., Gupta N., Vashisth S. Oral health in 4-6 years children with cleft lip/palate: a case control study // N Am J Med Sci. – 2014;6(6):266-269. DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.134371.

26. Stelzle F., Rohde M., Oetter N., Krug K., Riemann M., Adler W. Gingival esthetics and oral health-related quality of life in patients with cleft lip and palate // Int J Oral Maxillofacial Surgery. – 2017;46(8):993-997. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2017.03.020.

27. Funahashi K., Shiba T., Watanabe T., Nakagawa I., Moriyama K. Functional dysbiosis within dental plaque microbiota in cleft lip and palate patients // Progress in Orthodontics. – 2019;20(1):11. DOI: 10.1186/s40510-019-0265-1.

28. Malay K.K., Ravindran V., Kumar J. Gingival health status in children with and without cleft lip and palate: a case control study // Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. – 2020;14(4):5997-6003. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348296142_Gingival_Health_Status_in_Children_with_and_without_Cleft_Lip_and_Palate_A_Case_Control_Study.

29. Genco R.J., Borgnakke W.S. Risk factors for periodontal disease // Periodontol 2000. – 2013;62:59-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2012.00457.x.

30. Bril' E.A., Zubareva E.V., Yakimov K.Yu., Chizhov Yu.V., Galonskiy V.G. Opyt lecheniya hronicheskih gingivitov u podrostkov s zubochelyustnymi anomaliyami i deformaciyami. Institut stomatologii. 2021;4(93):86-87. [E.A. Bril, E.V. Zubareva, K.Yu. Yakimov, Yu.V. Chizhov, V.G. Galonsky. Experience in the treatment of chronic gingivitis in adolescents with dental anomalies and deformities. Institute of Dentistry. 2021;4(93):86-87. (In Russ.)]. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=47486941