Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Subject. With increasing age of patients, in many cases, the severity of periodontal diseases also increases, and dystrophic ones join the inflammatory processes. Local predisposing factors in the oral cavity are aggravated by concomitant somatic diseases and a decrease in compensatory processes against the background of physiological aging. Literature data indicate that the manifestations of the physiological process of aging and pathological processes (inflammatory and dystrophic) can be clearly observed on the example of buccal epithelial cells. The aim is to identify the relationship between the age of patients, their periodontal status and the cytological characteristics of buccal epithelial cells. Methodology. All study participants were divided into two groups: the first included patients with a conditionally healthy periodontium (72 people), the second - with a chronic inflammatory process in the periodontium (57 people). In accordance with the WHO classification, a gradation of age was carried out: young (18―44 years old), mature (45―59 years old), elderly (60―74 years old), senile (75―90 years old). All patients underwent a comprehensive dental examination, sampling and cytological examination of the buccal epithelium, calculation of the integral indices of the buccal cytogram. Results. In healthy patients, a weak positive correlation was established between the cytogenetic index, the index of the accumulation of cytogenetic disorders and age, a weak negative correlation was found between the proliferative index and age. In patients with an inflammatory process in the periodontal tissues, a multidirectional change in the values of the buccal cytogram indices was observed, which may indicate an imbalance in the processes of regeneration, apoptosis, and cellular damage in inflammatory periodontal diseases in older age groups. Conclusions. In patients with healthy periodontal disease, a regular accumulation of cytogenetic disorders occurs with increasing age, while proliferative activity, on the contrary, decreases. Patients with inflammatory phenomena in the periodontal tissues are characterized by imbalance, impaired coordination of regeneration and apoptosis processes, combined with the most pronounced reactivity in the middle age period.

aging, biological age, degenerative-dystrophic changes, periodontal disease, cytological examination, buccal epithelium, buccal cytogram

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