Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Background. The article is explored the problem of the influence of smokeless tobacco (snus) on clinical and laboratory indicators of oral fluid and the statement of oral mucosa of young people. Objective. To determine the dynamics of the chemical and physical parameters of oral fluid in 18-20 years old persons who use smokeless tobacco snus. Methodology. Clinical and laboratory examination of oral fluid is performed in 20 persons aged 18-20 years, who are divided into 2 groups, each group consist of 10 people: the study group which includes persons, who used only smokeless tobacco for more than 6 months, and the control group - persons who did not use tobacco in any form respectively. Chemical (pH, concentrations of thiocyanates (rhodonides), calcium, phosphorus; activity of alpha amylase), physical (viscosity), clinical (salivation rate, indices) parameters were used in both groups (three times before, during and after using smokeless tobacco). The results. It was found that persons who use snus have significant elevation in salivary thiocyanate level, especially during applying smokeless tobacco; increasing in viscosity, especially after tobacco use; rising of the alpha amylase activity after snus using; changes in pH before snus using were slightly acidic environment of oral fluid, during - alkaline, after - weakly alkaline. So, there are no reliable changes in the content of Ca|P in the studied saliva samples. Clinical study found some changes in the mucous membrane in the areas of application of snus (signs of leukoplakia, thickening and flattening of the frenules of the lips), low oral hygiene, the presence of cavities in the parietal areas of incisors of the lower jaw. Conclusions. The absorption of nicotine and other harmful products, which generated by the using of smokeless tobacco, in the systemic bloodstream leads to chronic system intoxication. «Snus» at the application points in the mouth leads to pathological changes: mucous membrane chronic trauma, periodontal disease and dental hard tissues. Due to local and systemic impact smokeless tobacco increases the risk of malignant tumors.

oral fluid, viscosity, thiocyanates, mucous membrane chronic trauma, smokeless tobacco, snus

1. Abramov, A. Ju., Lisicyna, M. M. (2014). Potreblenie psihoaktivnyh veshhestv sredi podrostkov v stranah Baltijskogo regiona. Rossijskij komponent issledovanija [Psychoactive substance use among adolescents in the Baltic region countries. Russian research component]. Social'nye aspekty zdorov'ja naselenija [Social aspects of population health.], 4. URL : (In Russ.)

2. Antonov, N. S., Saharova, G. M. (2012). Bezvrednyh form tabachnyh izdelij ne byvaet [There are no harmless forms of tobacco products]. Astma i allergija [Asthma and allergy], 4. URL : (In Russ.)

3. Mikaeljan, N. P., Komarov, O. S., Davydov, V. V., Mejsner, I. S., ed. Shestopalov, A. V. (2017). Biohimija rotovoj zhidkosti v norme i pri patologii: uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie dlja samostojatel'noj raboty studentov po special'nosti «Stomatologija» [Oral fluid biochemistry in health and pathology: teaching-methodical manual for independent work of students in the specialty "Dentistry"]. Moscow : IKAR, 64. (In Russ.)

4. Vavilova, T. P., Janushevich, O. O., Ostrovskaja, I. G. (2014). Sljuna. Analiticheskie vozmozhnosti i perspektivy [Saliva. Analytical possibilities and prospects]. Moscow : BINOM, 312. (In Russ.)

5. Gerasimova, L. P., Chemikosova, T. S., Vil'danov, M. N. (2017). Kompleksnoe lechenie ploskoj formy lejkoplakii slizistoj obolochki rta [Complex treatment of the flat form of leukoplakia of the oral mucosa]. Problemy stomatologii [Actual problems in dentistry], 13, 1, 61–64. (In Russ.)

6. Dzarasova, M. A., Nejolova, O. V. (2017). Specificheskie svojstva i funkcii sljuny kak mineralizirujushhej zhidkosti [Specific properties and functions of saliva as a mineralizing liquid]. Mezhdunarodnyj studencheskij nauchnyj vestnik [International student scientific bulletin], 4-6, 945–948. (In Russ.)

7. (2020). Doklad Obshhestvennoj palaty Rossijskoj Federacii «Tabachnaja jepidemija v Rossii: prichiny, posledstvija, puti preodolenija» [Report of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation "Tobacco epidemic in Russia: causes, consequences, ways to overcome"]. URL : (In Russ.)

8. Lamont, R. Dzh., Lanc, M. S., Berne, R. A., Leblanka, D. Dzh. (2010). Mikrobiologija i immunologija dlja stomatologov [Microbiology and Immunology for Dentists]. Moscow : Prakticheskaja medicina, 502. (In Russ.)

9. Osipova, M. V., Orehova, L. Ju., Belova, E. A. (2018). Jepidemiologicheskie pokazateli i model' razvitija, profilaktiki i lechenija vospalitel'nyh zabolevanij parodonta u kurjashhego naselenija [Epidemiological indices and model of development, prophylaxis and treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease in the smoking population]. Problemy stomatologii [Actual problems in dentistry], 4, 38–44. (In Russ.) doi: 10.18481/ 2077-7566-2018-14-4-38-44

10. Pokatilov, A. B., Tirichenko, O. Ju. (2017). Kurenie sredi nesovershennoletnih [Smoking among minors]. Glavvrach Juga Rossii [Chief physician of Southern Russia], 2 (54). URL: (In Russ.)

11. Salagaj, O. O. (2012). O merah po protivodejstviju upotrebleniju tabachnyh izdelij v prave Evropejskogo sojuza [About measures to counteract using of tobacco products in the European Union law]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava [Journal of the Russian law], 2 (182). URL : (In Russ.)

12. Phukan, R. K. et al. (2001). Betel nut and tobacco chewing; potential risk factors of cancer of oesophagus in Assam, India. British journal of cancer, 85, 5, 661–667. doi: 10.1054/bjoc.2001.1920

13. Sen, N. et al. (2019). Caries risk assessment using Cariogram model among smokeless tobacco users in India. Medicine and pharmacy reports, 92, 2, 165. doi: 10.15386/mpr-978

14. Datta, K. K. (2019). Chronic Exposure to Chewing Tobacco Induces Metabolic Reprogramming and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties in Esophageal Epithelial Cells. Cells, 8, 9, 949. doi: 10.3390/cells8090949.

15. Nanjappa, V. et al. (2015). Chronic exposure to chewing tobacco selects for overexpression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in normal oral keratinocytes. Cancer biology & therapy, 16, 11, 1593–1603. doi: 10.1080/15384047.2015.1078022

16. Persson, P. G. et al. (2000). Cigarette smoking, oral moist snuff use and glucose intolerance. Journal of internal medicine, 248, 2, 103–110. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2796.2000.00708.

17. Norberg, M. et al. (2006). Contribution of Swedish moist snuff to the metabolic syndrome: a wolf in sheep's clothing? Scandinavian journal of public health, 34, 6, 576–583.

18. Rolandsson, M. et al. (2005). Effects of snuff on oral health status of adolescent males: A case-control study. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 2005.

19. Eliasson, M., Lundblad, D., Hägg, E. (1991). Cardiovascular risk factors in young snuff users and cigarette smokers. Journal of internal medicine, 230, 1, 17–22.

20. Pansare, K. et al. (2019). Establishment and genomic characterization of gingivobuccal carcinoma cell lines with smokeless tobacco associated genetic alterations and oncogenic PIK3CA mutation. Scientific reports, 9, 1, 1–10.

21. Elovicova, T. et al. (2020). Evaluation of non-specific resistance of the oral mucosa in tobacco smokers. Actual problems in dentistry, 16, 1, 30–34. doi: 10.18481/2077-7566-20-16-1-30-34

22. Gupta, R., Gupta, N., Khedar, R. S. (2013). Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular disease in low and middle income countries. Indian heart journal, 65, 4, 369–377. doi: 10.1016/j.ihj.2013.06.005

23. Grøtvedt, L. et al. (2019). Impact of snus use in teenage boys on tobacco use in young adulthood; a cohort from the HUNT Study Norway. BMC public health, 19, 1, 1265.

24. Lashkari, K. P., Shukla, A. (2016). Prevalence of dental caries among smokeless tobacco chewers in Dakshina Kannada district population: A Cross Sectional Study. OHDM, 15, 6, 1–3.

25. Popova, L.(2014). Scaring the snus out of smokers: Testing effects of fear, threat, and efficacy on smokers’ acceptance of novel smokeless tobacco products. Health communication, 29, 9, 924–936. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2013.824063

26. Negi, M. et al. (2019). Prevalence of oral parameters in smokeless tobacco-associated precancer. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8, 12, 3956. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_667_19.

27. Goyal, J. et al. (2019). Prevalence of periodontal status among nicotine dependent individuals of 35-44 years attending community dental camps in Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 8, 7, 2456. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_315_19.

28. Merne, M. et al. (2002). Proliferation and differentation markers in snuff‐induced oral mucosal lesions. Journal of oral pathology & medicine, 31, 5, 259–266.

29. Hergens, M. P. et al. (2008). Risk of hypertension amongst Swedish male snuff users: a prospective study. Journal of internal medicine, 264, 2, 187–194. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2008.01939.x.

30. Smyth, E. M. et al. (2017). Smokeless tobacco products harbor diverse bacterial microbiota that differ across products and brands. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 101, 13, 5391–5403. doi: 10.1007/s00253-017-8282-9.

31. Carlsson, S. et al. (2017). Smokeless tobacco (snus) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes: results from five pooled cohorts. Journal of internal medicine, 281, 4, 398–406. doi: 10.1007/s00253-017-8282-9

32. Hashemipour, M. A. et al. (2013). Snus (nass) and oral cancer: A case series report. Dental research journal, 10, 1, 116. doi: 10.4103/1735-3327.111813

33. Naveen-Kumar, B. et al. (2016). Various forms of tobacco usage and its associated oral mucosal lesions. Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry, 8, 2, 172. doi: 10.4317/jced.52654

34. Biradar, A. S. et al. (2014). Tobacco use and oral hygiene as risk indicators for periodontitis-a comparative study. International J. Health Sci Res, 4, 166–172.

35. Teo, K. K. et al. (2006). Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the INTERHEART study: a case-control study. The lancet, 368, 9536, 647–658.