MODERN KNOWLEDGE AND CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES OF USE FOR POSITIONING DENTAL IMPLANTS OF SURGICAL TEMPLATES. LITERATURE REVIEW
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Subject. Since the mid-20th century, there has been an increase of interest in implantation for the treatment of partial and complete loss of teeth. P. I. Branemark was one of the first pioneers who developed an implant that forms osseointegration. Anatomical restrictions and restorative requirements prompt the implantologist to achieve the accuracy of planning and surgical positioning of dental implants. The ideal placement of the implant facilitates the creation of favorable forces on implants and prosthetic structures, and also provides an aesthetic result. Therefore, it is advisable to establish a logical continuity between the planned restoration and the surgical stages, it is important to use the transmitting device, which undoubtedly increases the effectiveness of the implantation. In 1987, M. J. Edge et al. recommended the use of surgical guides before the implantation operation. Currently, surgical templates have become increasingly used. The article presents data on the features of planning of implant placement and the technology of applying a surgical template for positioning the dental implant unit. Goal. To show the value of using surgical templates for the rational installation of dental implants and preventing possible errors and complications. Methodology. A search for literature using search engines such as Google, Yahoo and scientific bibliographic databases such as PubMed, Medline and textbooks was conducted until September 2017 using medical thematic headings like «Dental Implants», «Surgical Templates». More than 300 sources of literature were identified, after studying which they reduced to 28 sources of articles and literary reviews. Conclusions. The study of available to us literature, revealed the advantages and disadvantages of using surgical templates. The main advantages: precise placement of implants, preservation of anatomical structures; three-dimensional technology allows to accurately estimate anatomical points, such as the size of the maxillary sinus in the upper jaw and the location of the alveolar nerve in the lower jaw, high observable accuracy of 0.1 mm, reduction of the time of surgical intervention. Disadvantages: lack of visibility and tactile control during the surgical procedure, insufficient opening of the mouth jeopardizes the result of complex treatment, there is a risk of damage to vital anatomical structures.

Keywords:
implantation, surgical template, cylindrical implant, computer planning.
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