Midfacial fractures are presented by wide range of different patterns and severity. Orbital walls fractures have a special place in the structure of traumatic craniofacial injuries. Referring foreign authors, fractures of external rims and internal orbital walls are presented in more than 40 % of all bony injuries of facial skeleton. And referring Russian authors frequency of zygomaticomaxillary complex and isolated maxillary fractures presented by 12 and 8 % respectively. Furthermore complex anatomy of the orbit and proximity of the globe can occur some difficulties in diagnostics and treatment process of these patients. Today there are two main mechanisms of orbital walls fractures development – Blow-out, when fracture caused by increasing of intraorbital pressure, and Force-transmission, when force applied to external orbital rims transmits to a weaker orbital walls. Moreover in young patients Trapdoor mechanism is actual, which results in entrapment of soft tissues in the fracture line. Often there is an inferior rectus muscle entrapment and that is serious complication, when immediate surgery is required. The article deals with issues of anatomical construction of orbit and orbital trauma epidemiology based on statistics of neurosurgical department of Central city clinical hospital № 23, Yekaterinburg, for 2017.
orbit, reconstructive surgery, fracture, craniomaxillofacial surgery, combined trauma
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